5. Dapo Akande, Antonio Coco, Talita de Souza Dias, etc., The Second Oxford Statement on International Law Protections of the Healthcare Sector During COVID-19: Safeguarding Vaccine Research, 2020.08.11, https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-second-oxford-statement-on-international-law-protections-of-the-healthcare-sector-during-covid-19-safeguarding-vaccine-research/ . The Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict hosted a second virtual workshop on July 31, 2020, again co-sponsored with Microsoft and the Government of Japan, to hear from vaccine researchers and information security experts about the special challenges of protecting vaccine research from cyber-intrusion. The workshop clarified both the cyber protections needed by vaccine research, and how international law applies to the protection of the development, testing, manufacture, and distribution of a COVID-19 vaccine.

4. Wade Davis, The Unraveling of America, 2020.08.06, https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/political-commentary/covid-19-end-of-american-era-wade-davis-1038206/?from=timeline . Anthropologist Wade Davis on how COVID-19 signals the end of the American era.

3. the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, the American Public Health Association, Tracking COVID-19 in the United States From Information Catastrophe to Empowered Communities, 2020.07.21, https://preventepidemics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Tracking-COVID-19-in-the-United-States-Report.pdf . Leading US health organisations produced a checklist of 15 essential data points in the fight against Covid-19. The report painted a bleak picture of the country’s response to the disease. Five months into the pandemic, the essential intelligence that would allow public health authorities to get to grips with the virus is still not being compiled in usable form.

2. Huang Huikang, No Justification for Stigmatizing China on COVID-19, 2020 summer, http://www.cpifa.org/en/cms/item/view?table=book&id=310&from=singlemessage . Huang Huikang published an article in foreign affairs journal, holding that It is an evil act to stigmatize China on COVID-19. The compensation lawsuits against China are groundless and violation of international law. They are also not conducive to the overall situation of international cooperation in fighting against COVID-19.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Detection and Genetic Characterization of Community-Based SARS-CoV-2 Infections — New York City, March 2020, 2020.07.17, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6928a5.htm . This report indicates the majority of coronavirus cases within New York originate from Europe rather than China. No sentinel sequences were directly connected to sequences from Wuhan, China, where the outbreak originated.

0. Hemaho B. Taboe,Michael Asare-Baah, etc., Impact of age structure and vaccine prioritization on COVID-19 in West Africa, 2022.09.08, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9454155/ . Contrary to early predictions that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) would bear a disproportionate share of the burden of COVID-19 due to the region's vulnerability to other infectious diseases, weak healthcare systems, and socioeconomic conditions, the pandemic's effects in SSA have been very mild in comparison to other regions. In this study, the authors formulate a model framework consisting of a basic model (in which only susceptible individuals are vaccinated), a vaccine-structured model, and a hybrid vaccine-age-structured model to assess the dynamics of COVID-19 in West Africa (WA). Simulations of the models show that controlling the COVID-19 pandemic in WA (by reducing transmission) requires a proactive approach, including prioritizing vaccination of more youths or vaccination of more youths and elderly simultaneously. Moreover, complementing vaccination with a higher level of mask compliance will improve the prospects of containing the pandemic. Furthermore, the emergence of a more transmissible variant or easing the existing measures that are effective in reducing transmission will result in more devastating COVID-19 waves in the future. To conclude, accounting for age-structure is important in understanding why the burden of COVID-19 has been low in WA and sustaining the current vaccination level, complemented with the WHO recommended NPIs is critical in curbing the spread of the disease in WA.

Beijing Interest Group on Global Health and Global Governance
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