222. Cathal O’Donoghue, Denisa M Sologon, Iryna Kyzyma,, Novel welfare state responses in times of crises: the COVID-19 crisis versus the Great Recession, 2022.08.12, https://academic.oup.com/ser/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ser/mwac033/6662334?searchresult=1 . Using microsimulation tools, we explore the social policy responses to the Great Recession and the COVID-19 crisis, and their impact on preserving living standards in Ireland. During the Great Recession, the focus was on cost reduction. By contrast, during the COVID-19 crisis, the focus was on mitigating the impact on household incomes. In addition, an innovation in joint public and private responses emerged through social partnership. We find a stronger policy response during the COVID-19 crisis than the Great Recession. The COVID-19 crisis was more rapid, leaving more individuals out of work, thus family support was weaker. This was compensated by stronger private support through social partnership. Consequently, those with lower incomes had larger disposable incomes at the onset of the crisis; an effect that reduced with policy learning. We find increasing trust in public institutions during the COVID-19 crisis as opposed to a decline during the Great Recession.

221. Naimisha Movva, Mina Suh, etc., Respiratory Syncytial Virus During the COVID-19 Pandemic Compared to Historic Levels: A Retrospective Cohort Study of a Health System, 2022.08.15, https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/226/Supplement_2/S175/6665999?searchresult=1 . With the interruption of historical RSV epidemiologic trends and the emergence of interseasonal disease during COVID-19, continued monitoring of RSV is warranted across all settings as the changing RSV epidemiology could affect the distribution of health care resources and public health policy.

220. Jennifer Dan, Ricardo da Silva Antunes, etc., Observations and Perspectives on Adaptive Immunity to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 2022.08.15, https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/75/Supplement_1/S24/6571103 . Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began 2 years ago, the scientific community has swiftly worked to understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response of this virus to implement public health policies and ultimately project an end to the pandemic. In this perspective, we present our work identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes to quantify T-cell responses and review how T cells may help protect against severe disease. We examine our prior studies which demonstrate durable humoral and cell-mediated memory in natural infection and vaccination. We discuss how SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells from either natural infection or vaccination can recognize emerging variants of concern, suggesting that the currently approved vaccines may be sufficient. We also discuss how pre-existing cross-reactive T cells promote rapid development of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2. We finally posit how identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes can help us develop a pan-coronavirus vaccine to prepare for future pandemics.

219. Amy C Sherman, Nadine Rouphael, etc., Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine Trials (and Tribulations): How to Improve the Process of Clinical Trials in a Pandemic, 2022.04.18, https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/75/Supplement_1/S5/6569988 . Vaccine clinical trials have been essential to developing effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines. The challenges of supply chain disruptions, infection control, study designs, and participant factors that affect trial procedures are reviewed, with specific solutions to streamline the clinical trial process.

218. Sharifa Nasreen, Yossi Febriani, etc., Effectiveness of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccines Against Hospitalization and Death in Canada: A Multiprovincial, Test-Negative Design Study, 2022.08.17, https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciac634/6668859?searchresult=1 . A major goal of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is to prevent severe outcomes (hospitalizations and deaths). We estimated the effectiveness of messenger RNA (mRNA) and ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccines against severe outcomes in 4 Canadian provinces between December 2020 and September 2021.Two doses of mRNA or ChAdOx1 vaccine provide excellent protection against severe outcomes.

217. Maria Lúcia Teixeira Garcia, Gary Spolander, etc., Social Work in Brazil in the Vortex of Three crises: Pandemic, Social and Political, 2022.08.18, https://academic.oup.com/bjsw/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bjsw/bcac129/6671434?searchresult=1#369428390 . Social work in Brazil advocates a radical and critical model of social work theorisation and practice. This article explores the Brazilian theoretical and practice model, identifying the profession as being in the vortex of Covid-19, increasing state economic austerity, attacks on previously hard-won progressive social policy and increasing inequality and precarity. This provides a challenging practice environment. The professional re-conceptualisation model proposes that social work needs to fully theorise social difficulties to ensure that the profession intervenes to address the causes of the problems, rather than manifestations underlying them. This is undertaken through aligning itself with working-class conflicts, promoting rights and refusing to accept the rolling back of support already won. The Brazilian framework, located within its social realities, offers an opportunity for social work globally to consider what lessons can be learnt, to recognise the uniqueness of its perspectives and provide solidarity through its recognition.

216. Alessia Maccaro, Davide Piaggio, etc., COVID-19 preparedness and social dynamics in a Sub-Saharan Africa country, Benin, 2022.08.24, https://academic.oup.com/heapro/article/37/4/daac105/6674369?searchresult=1#369637091 . This project aims to assess and analyse the perception and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Benin. The applied research methodology was interdisciplinary and combined field studies that used ethnographic and social research methods with coding and data analysis, leading to theoretical dilemmas, which were analysed from the viewpoint of bioethical reflection. Furthermore, biomedical engineering approaches were used to assess the preparedness to COVID-19. Despite the preparedness to COVID-19 due to the promoted governmental measures, a peculiar management of the pandemic emerged. The latter, although noteworthy, did not overcome the typical challenges of medical locations in low-resource settings. This, together with the controversial spread of information and local beliefs, caused significant economic and social consequences, exceeding the benefits related to the containment of the virus. This research highlights how the emotion of fear, in this specific situation, was herald of dramatic consequences, rather than having a heuristic and empowering effect.

215. James Scheibner, Jane Nielsen, Dianne Nicol, An ethico-legal assessment of intellectual property rights and their effect on COVID-19 vaccine distribution: an Australian case study, 2022.07.12, https://academic.oup.com/jlb/article/9/2/lsac020/6640316 . This article posits that Australia, as an affluent country with increasing capacity to manufacture vaccines, has an obligation to assist its regional (and global) counterparts in implementing vaccination programs that protect their populations. First, the article explores the capacity of high-income nations to meet their obligations, assist their neighbours and refrain from vaccine nationalism. This inquiry involves an analysis of the optimal ethical strategy for distributing vaccines globally, and the role that Australia might play in this distribution strategy. Secondly, the article examines the intellectual property landscape for vaccines in Australia, focusing on the patents that cover vaccine compositions and manufacturing techniques (recognizing the potential for know-how and access to materials as well as patents to affect manufacturing capacity). This article then discusses the strategies the Australian Government has at its disposal to counter potential intellectual property impediments whilst complying with existing obligations under the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), as an ethically appropriate response to the pandemic. This article also considers whether a so-called TRIPS waiver could provide better options and concludes that the challenge of compelling disclosure of know-how remains.

214. Justin C Strickland, Derek D Reed, etc., Behavioral economic methods predict future COVID-19 vaccination, 2022.08.25, https://academic.oup.com/tbm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/tbm/ibac057/6675466?searchresult=1 . A goal of behavioral science is to develop methods that can predict future behavior to inform preventive health efforts and identify ways people engage in positive health behaviors. Behavioral economic methods apply easy to use and rapid assessment tools to evaluate these mechanisms of health behavior engagement. Here, we show how similar methods can be applied to novel behaviors yet experienced like intentions to vaccinate against COVID-19. We find that responses on a behavioral economic task designed to measure vaccination likelihood closely corresponded to the likelihood of being vaccinated 1 year later. This prediction was above and beyond common predictors of vaccination including demographics like political orientation and age. These findings provide support for these novel methods in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically, and behavioral health, broadly.

213. Shan Luo, Ying Liang, etc., Identifying factors contributing to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 risk: a systematic review of Mendelian randomization studies, 2022.04.20, https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/51/4/1088/6571699#369253943 . This review summarizes modifiable factors for intervention (e.g. smoking, obesity and inflammatory factors) and proteomic signatures (e.g. OAS1 and IL-6) that could help identify drugs for treating COVID-19.

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