270. G Owen Schaefer, Tess Johnson, etc., Vaccination of individuals lacking decision-making capacity during a public health emergency, 2022.10.20, https://academic.oup.com/jlb/article/9/2/lsac030/6763560?searchresult=1 . This paper explores the ethical challenges in deciding whether to vaccinate individuals lacking the decision-making capacity needed to provide informed consent during a public health emergency like COVID-19.

269. Preeti Pushpalata Zanwar, Arokiasamy Perianayagam, etc., Examining the Impacts of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Mitigation Policies on Health Outcomes of Older Adults: Lessons Learned From Six High-Income or Middle-Income Countries, 2022.10.09, https://academic.oup.com/ppar/article/32/4/121/6754345?searchresult=1 . There were considerable differences in COVID-19 mitigation and control policies in countries that used a centralized, top-down approach (e.g., Japan, India) versus those that used a decentralized, bottom-up approach (e.g., Canada, the United States, Brazil, Russia). The paper examines how these policies appeared to impact the most vulnerable group of people, especially older adults.

268. Maike Winters, Olivia Biermann, etc., Media use and trust during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from eight cross-sectional surveys in Sweden, 2022.10.12, https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckac145/6759691?searchresult=1. . The paper examines Swedish residents’ media use during the pandemic and trust in and perceived agreement among key stakeholders commenting in the media, and emphases the importance of building trust before a crisis. Trust-building efforts could be targeted to men and those with lower educational attainment, as they had lower trust in key stakeholders.

267. Léo Pomar, Guillaume Favre, Claire de Labrusse, etc., Impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on birth rates in Europe: a time series analysis in 24 countries, 2022.10.13, https://academic.oup.com/humrep/advance-article/doi/10.1093/humrep/deac215/6759684?searchresult=1. . The paper examines the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on monthly birth rates in Europe. Using datasets on live births per month in Europe, collected from the Human Fertility Database, we found a −14.1% decline in live births in January 2021 (i.e. 9–10 months after the epidemic peaks and first lockdowns), compared to the average number of live births in January 2018 and 2019.

266. Emma Cave, Aisling McMahon, Should states restrict recipient choice amongst relevant and available COVID-19 vaccines?, 2022.10.14, https://academic.oup.com/medlaw/advance-article/doi/10.1093/medlaw/fwac042/6761314?searchresult=1 . The paper considers the policy justifications for state controls on recipient choice amongst COVID-19 vaccine brands, focusing on European countries and drawing on the UK context as an example and contrasts justifications for not offering choice at the height of the early pandemic crisis, and as some states seek to de-escalate their response and transition towards living with COVID-19.

265. Joshua A Barocas, Steffanie A Strathdee, Beyond sex: Human Monkeypox Virus is an Emerging Threat to Marginalized Populations, 2022.10.17, https://academic.oup.com/ofid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofac551/6761765?searchresult=1 . While substantial attention has been focused on sexual risk, particularly among men who have sex with men, other populations are vulnerable to this virus. In particular, people experiencing homelessness and those with substance use disorders are vulnerable to MPXV. Herein, the paper presents a spectrum of structural determinants underpinning increased risks in these populations and recommendations that could help mitigate the spread.

264. Raya Elfadel Kheirbek, Brock Allen Beamer, Incarcerated Older Adults in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Era: A Call for Advancing Health and Human Dignity, 2022.10.17, https://academic.oup.com/ppar/article/32/4/149/6762312?searchresult=1 . The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a spotlight on the confluence of problems in the U.S. incarceration system and created a perfect storm for mass COVID-19 outbreaks. Prisons and jails had the largest single-site outbreaks since the beginning of the pandemic, where vulnerable older adults were most affected.

263. Yu Kato, Nathaniel I Bloom, etc., Memory B-Cell Development After Asymptomatic or Mild Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection, 2022.07.27, https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiac319/6650397?searchresult=1 . We compared spike antibody titers, pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers, and memory B-cell responses among SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive Marine recruits who either reported asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. Thirty-six asymptomatic participants exhibited similar spike IgG titers, spike IgA titers, and pseudovirus neutralization titers compared to 30 symptomatic participants. Pseudovirus neutralization and spike IgG titers showed significant positive correlations with frequency of memory B cells. Among young adults, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection induced antibody and memory B-cell responses comparable to mild symptomatic infection.

262. Hans P Verkerke, Gregory L Damhorst, etc., Nucleocapsid Antigenemia Is a Marker of Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection, 2022.07.25, https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiac225/6649768?searchresult=1 . Detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is essential for diagnosis, treatment, and infection control. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fails to distinguish acute from resolved infections, as RNA is frequently detected after infectiousness. We hypothesized that nucleocapsid in blood marks acute infection with the potential to enhance isolation and treatment strategies. In a retrospective serosurvey of inpatient and outpatient encounters, we categorized samples along an infection timeline using timing of SARS-CoV-2 testing and symptomatology. Among 1860 specimens from 1607 patients, the highest levels and frequency of antigenemia were observed in samples from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antigenemia was higher in seronegative individuals and in those with severe disease. In our analysis, antigenemia exhibited 85.8% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity as a biomarker for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, antigenemia sensitively and specifically marks acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further study is warranted to determine whether antigenemia may aid individualized assessment of active COVID-19.

261. Priscila M S Castanha, Dylan J Tuttle, etc., Contribution of Coronavirus-Specific Immunoglobulin G Responses to Complement Overactivation in Patients with Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019, 2022.05.10, https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/226/5/766/6546404 . Excessive complement activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but the mechanisms leading to this response remain unclear. We measured plasma levels of key complement markers, SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal human CCCs in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 of moderate (n = 18) and critical severity (n = 37) and in healthy controls (n = 10). These findings indicate that early, nonneutralizing IgG responses may play a key role in complement overactivation in severe COVID-19. Our work underscores the urgent need to develop therapeutic strategies to modify complement overactivation in patients with COVID-19.

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