260. Jennifer H Ku, Myron J Levin, etc., Risk of Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 Disease in Individuals With Down Syndrome: A Matched Cohort Study From a Large, Integrated Health Care System, 2022.07.24, https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/226/5/757/6617571 . In a matched cohort study, we evaluated the risk of COVID-19 infection and severe COVID-19 disease in individuals with DS and their matched counterparts in a pre-COVID-19 vaccination period at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Multivariable Cox proportion hazard regression was used to investigate associations between DS and risk of COVID-19 infection and severe COVID-19 disease. Although the risk of COVID-19 infection is lower, the risk of severe disease is higher in individuals with DS compared with their matched counterparts. Better infection monitoring, early treatment, and promotion of vaccine for COVID-19 are warranted for DS populations.

259. Dimitra Panteli, Christoph Reichebner, etc., Health care patterns and policies in 18 European countries during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: an observational study, 2022.05.27, https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/32/4/557/6594116 . COVID-19 pandemic has developed into an unprecedented global challenge. Differences between countries in testing strategies, hospitalization protocols as well as ensuring and managing ICU capacities can illustrate initial responses to a major health system shock, and steer future preparedness activities. This study enables a general understanding of how the early evolution of the pandemic influenced and was influenced by country responses and clearly demonstrates the immense potential for cross-country learning.

258. J Mwai, J Mutai, L Kaduka, etc., Association between sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge and practice of COVID-19 measures among households in Mombasa and Kilifi County, Kenya, 2022.07.28, https://academic.oup.com/inthealth/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inthealth/ihac049/6651286?searchresult=1 . The sociodemographic characteristics of populations play a key role in behavioural aspects as far as prevention and control of COVID-19 are concerned. There is a need for partnerships between the MoH and county governments to put in place a multisectoral community approach to advance feasible behavioural interventions among targeted populations towards combating the spread of COVID-19.

257. Jaime C Auton, Daniel Sturman, Individual differences and compliance intentions with COVID-19 restrictions: insights from a lockdown in Melbourne (Australia), 2022.07.18, https://academic.oup.com/heapro/article/37/3/daac089/6651170?searchresult=1 . It was found that greater levels of organization predicted greater intentions to comply with the COVID-19 restrictions, while higher socio-economic status, sociability and anxiety predicted lower compliance intentions. Further, individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19 reported lower intentions to comply with the COVID-19 restrictions. The strongest predictor of compliance intentions, however, was a greater knowledge of the current restrictions. These findings highlight that public health orders around COVID-19 restrictions should be presented in a clear and uncomplicated manner and should target specific groups to increase compliance.

256. Char Leung, Li Su, etc., Better healthcare can reduce the risk of COVID-19 in-hospital post-partum maternal death: evidence from Brazil, 2022.08.10, https://academic.oup.com/ije/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ije/dyac157/6659906?searchresult=1 . COVID-19 in post-partum women is commonly overlooked. The present study assessed whether puerperium is an independent risk factor of COVID-19 related in-hospital maternal death and whether fatality is preventable in the Brazilian context. We demonstrated that puerperium was associated with an increased odds of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. Only part of the risk can be reduced by quality healthcare such as non-profit private hospitals, those that have an obstetric centre or those located in urban areas.

255. Florence Débarre, Emmanuel Lecoeur, etc., The French Covid-19 vaccination policy did not solve vaccination inequities: a nationwide study on 64.5 million people, 2022.09.14, https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckac125/6697909?searchresult=1 . This study aims to obtain further insights on the socio-economic, political and geographic factor associated with vaccination rates, and to evaluate the effect of the French domestic sanitary pass, by using nationwide, exhaustive datasets. By emphasizing a differentiated use of COVID-19 vaccination according to a socio-economic gradient, the study confirms the strong impact of social inequalities on COVID-19. Previous research found that the most deprived areas have been disproportionately infected and hospitalized during the pandemic. The study further show that poorer districts are also the least vaccinated and, hence, the most still at risk, despite the widely celebrated domestic sanitary pass. There is an urgent need to define new vaccination policies that truly address social inequities.

254. Donato Greco, What Does the Monkeypox Outbreak Tell Us about Global Health Governance? Critical Remarks on the New WHO Declaration of Public Health Emergency of International Concern, 2022.08.10, https://www.ejiltalk.org/what-does-the-monkeypox-outbreak-tell-us-about-global-health-governance-critical-remarks-on-the-new-who-declaration-of-public-health-emergency-of-international-concern/ . On 23 July 2022, the Director-General of the World Health Organisation (“WHO”) declared that the outbreak of monkeypox constitutes a public health emergency of international concern (“PHEIC”). The present post is aimed at highlighting some critical issues related not only to the PHEIC declaration but, more generally, to global health governance. The post shows that not a few shortcomings affect the governance of international health emergencies.

253. Santiago Peña (Bomchil), Alegría Jijón, A Brief Comment on ALArb’s Protocol for Virtual Arbitration Hearings, 2022.07.22, http://arbitrationblog.kluwerarbitration.com/2022/07/22/a-brief-comment-on-alarbs-protocol-for-virtual-arbitration-hearings/ . COVID-19 pandemic restrictions imposed in early 2020 led to a substantial change in the way international arbitration proceedings are conducted—forcing practitioners to hold any kind of hearing exclusively on a virtual basis in order to avoid the suspension of proceedings. Having identified a growing concern on guidance of how virtual hearings should be conducted, the Observatory on the State of Arbitration in Latin America launched the Protocol for Remote or Virtual Arbitration Hearings (the “Protocol”) in May 2021. In this article, the authors review briefly the structure and content of the Protocol and analyze the most relevant conclusions from its practical application.

252. Maria Hauser-Morel, Charlotte Matthews, Signing an Award in Counterparts: The Paris Court of Appeal Adopts a Flexible Stance, 2022.03.09, http://arbitrationblog.kluwerarbitration.com/2022/03/09/signing-an-award-in-counterparts-the-paris-court-of-appeal-adopts-a-flexible-stance/ . The Paris Court of Appeal has ruled in a Covid-related set aside request that French law does not impose an obligation on arbitrators to sign an award simultaneously on the same page. it is doubtful that the applicant would have succeeded to show that the impugned signature process constituted a violation of the mandate conferred upon the tribunal (1520-3°) or that it constituted a violation of public international order (1520-5°). It may reasonably be expected that the Paris Court of Appeal would equally be as un-formalistic with an international arbitral award, where the Court has shown particular deference to flexibility and party autonomy. In any event, going forward, it is likely that parties will increasingly use e-signature procedures, progressively rendering wet signature issues moot.

251. Fok-Moon Lum, Anthony Torres-Ruesta, etc., Monkeypox: disease epidemiology, host immunity and clinical interventions, 2022.09.05, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9443635/ . Monkeypox virus (MPXV), which causes disease in humans, has for many years been restricted to the African continent, with only a handful of sporadic cases in other parts of the world. However, unprecedented outbreaks of monkeypox in non-endemic regions have recently taken the world by surprise. In less than 4 months, the number of detected MPXV infections has soared to more than 48,000 cases, recording a total of 13 deaths. In this Review, the authors discuss the clinical, epidemiological and immunological features of MPXV infections. The authors also highlight important research questions and new opportunities to tackle the ongoing monkeypox outbreak.

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